How To

I’ve been trying to write fewer posts that are simply re-quoting stuff that others have written.

Instead, if you want to follow some of the links I come across which I think are interesting, feel free to check out my Delicious bookmarks, or FriendFeed.

Today is the exception.

Here are some quote from three excellent “How To…” articles that I’ve stumbled across in the last few weeks, written by Paul Graham and Joel Spolsky.

If you’re working on, or investing in start-up companies, or would like to be, I recommend you read all three…  


How to be a Start-up Founder – by Paul Graham

“I’ve figured out how to express the quality [of being a good start-up founder] directly. I was writing a talk for investors, and I had to explain what to look for in founders. What would someone who was the opposite of hapless be like? They’d be relentlessly resourceful. Not merely relentless. That’s not enough to make things go your way except in a few mostly uninteresting domains. In any interesting domain, the difficulties will be novel. Which means you can’t simply plow through them, because you don’t know initially how hard they are; you don’t know whether you’re about to plow through a block of foam or granite. So you have to be resourceful. You have to have keep trying new things.  Be relentlessly resourceful.”

“If I were running a startup, this would be the phrase I’d tape to the mirror. “Make something people want” is the destination, but “Be relentlessly resourceful” is how you get there.”


How to be a Program Manager – by Joel Spolsky

“Having a good program manager is one of the secret formulas to making really great software. And you probably don’t have one on your team, because most teams don’t.”

“[Jabe Blumenthal, a programmer on the Mac Excel team in the late 80s] noticed that software development was getting so complicated that none of the programmers had the time to figure out how to make software that was either usable or useful. The marketing team was ranting and raving about customer needs and nobody had time to talk to them or translate their MBA-speak into actual features. There was a lot of product design stuff that took a lot of work: talking to users, running usability tests, reviewing competitive products, and thinking hard about how to make things easier, and most programmers just didn’t have the time (nor were they particularly good at it).”

“A good rule of thumb is that it takes about one program manager for every four programmers.”

“The number one mistake most companies make is having the manager of the programmers writing the specs and designing the product. This is a mistake because the design does not get a fair trial, and is not born out of conflict and debate, so it’s not as good as it could be.”

“… being effective as a program manager means you have to (a) be right, and (b) earn the respect of the programmers so that they concede that you’re right.”


How to be an Angel Investor – by Paul Graham

“Don’t spend much time worrying about the details of deal terms, especially when you first start angel investing. That’s not how you win at this game. When you hear people talking about a successful angel investor, they’re not saying “He got a 4x liquidation preference.” They’re saying “He invested in Google.”  That’s how you win: by investing in the right startups.”

“How do you decide what valuation to offer? If you’re part of a round led by someone else, that problem is solved for you. But what if you’re investing by yourself? There’s no real answer. There is no rational way to value an early stage startup. The valuation reflects nothing more than the strength of the company’s bargaining position. If they really want you, either because they desperately need money, or you’re someone who can help them a lot, they’ll let you invest at a low valuation. If they don’t need you, it will be higher. So guess.”

“Ultimately it doesn’t matter much. When angels make a lot of money from a deal, it’s not because they invested at a valuation of $1.5 million instead of $3 million. It’s because the company was really successful.”

“To be a good angel investor, you have to be a good judge of potential. That’s what it comes down to. VCs can be fast followers. Most of them don’t try to predict what will win. They just try to notice quickly when something already is winning. But angels have to be able to predict.”

“The most successful angel investors I know are all basically good people. Once they invest in a company, all they want to do is help it. And they’ll help people they haven’t invested in too. When they do favors they don’t seem to keep track of them. It’s too much overhead. They just try to help everyone, and assume good things will flow back to them somehow. Empirically that seems to work.”

Now what?

“I reckon an education notice can’t just say “don’t do that”. It needs to include what to do instead otherwise it’s not education. ”

Br3nda via Twitter

“The biggest threat to an author is obscurity, not piracy.”

— Tim O’Reilly

I was overseas and missed the bulk of the debate about Section 92a of the new Copyright Amendment Act.

But the outcome was pretty interesting, even from a distance.

The #blackout campaign, initiated by Creative Freedom NZ and supported by a huge number of people, managed to get a lot of coverage of the issue and convinced the government to delay the implementation of this part of the Act.

And then, earlier this week, they announced that they were scrapping this altogether and going back to the drawing board.

So, here is a question for everybody that supported the campaign (i.e. everybody who changed their avatar in Facebook and/or Twitter):

Now what?

The current wording of s92a is dumb.  All agreed.  But, how should it read?

I’m not sure that I’ve heard anybody propose a solution that everybody would support, which I assume means that this is a much more difficult problem than we think.

The Creative Freedom site lists three goals:

  1. No “guilt upon accusation” law
  2. DRM Free NewZealand
  3. No companies snooping on your internet 

These are fine goals.  

I think everybody would nod in furious agreement as they read those.

(If you haven’t already I encourage you to follow the links above read the details).

And I think that most people would also agree that the groups representing the various rights owners have to be part of the solution, even though they have not seemed very willing to engage in the debate (for example, when RIANZ CEO Campbell Smith describes a requirement to provide evidence of copyright infringement as “impractical” and “ridiculous” he just looks silly).

There just doesn’t seem to be a middle ground at the moment.  

So, it’s a stalemate.

On one side we have people who consume content who, it seems, would probably prefer to keep the status-quo where they can reasonably freely download and share whatever without risk of being caught (it’s hard to beat free, eh!)

That might be unfair, but I haven’t really heard anybody on this side of the debate come out strongly against copyright infringements and say “we think it’s terrible that it’s so easy to steal, and we think it should be enforced like this …”.  

Perhaps it’s a case of people in glass houses being a bit cautious about throwing stones?  

On the other side are the content producers and rights owners who seem incapable of grasping the size of the opportunity they are missing out on by sticking to their old business models and a mindset of having to hold on so tightly to the content they own.  

As Elan from Plex said so well in his recent open letter to media companies

“You have to stop being scared that I’m going to steal your content, because I’m already stealing your content. Your goal should be to get me to give you the money I’m already giving to others.”


“There is a holy trinity of things I want desperately from you, because I can’t get them anywhere else: availability, quality, and metadata. By availability I mean give me access to full catalogs of content. More is more. If I can’t get it from you, I’m going to have to go elsewhere, and you don’t want that. Secondly, give me quality: why would I go to you for SD content when I can get HD content elsewhere? Why would I go to you for ad-laden content when I can get ad-free content elsewhere? Lastly, give me rich metadata: reviews, related content, recommendations, transcripts, and credits. And give me an API interface to that data. In return I will give you my money every month, and I’ll rub your feet at least once a week.”

And stuck in the middle of all of this are the ISPs of various flavours, who would, I suspect, much rather just invoice monthly than have to get involved in the messy business of being adjudicator and enforcer.

That seems like quite a big gap to try and bridge.

How do we break this deadlock?

What’s the next step forwards?

Are there examples from overseas that we think would work here – i.e. the American model (which gives a bit more power to the rights owners) or the European model (which gives a bit more power to the consumer)?  

Or perhaps we try our own hybrid, with some form of industry self-regulation?

Would that work?

Or do we just think it’s all too hard, and so stick with the status-quo by default?

Interested in your thoughts.

OSX for Windows Refugees

Macbook in Trash

If you’re a Windows refugee and Santa bought you a new MacBook or iMac, then you might be feeling a bit duped by now.

When I first switched to using a Mac I really struggled for the first month or so. Prior to that I’d been a Windows user for getting onto 10 years (gulp!) and during that time had become a power user. Now all of a sudden I felt like I had been dropped blindfolded into an unfamiliar place without a map.

Watching somebody who is not a confident computer user playing with OSX for the first time is amazing. Things work, everything is where they expect and nothing gets in the way.  They land on their feet.

But, for somebody who is an experienced Windows user, it can be a little intimidating and frustrating. There is a dip to go through, and you have a lot of old habits to break, but once you come out the other side it’s a beautiful place. :-)

I thought I’d share some of the things that helped me …

Keyboard Shortcuts

I eventually realised one of the main reasons for my frustration: none of my keyboard shortcuts worked any more … not even Alt-F4 to close applications … so I was forced to use the mouse a lot more than I was used to.

As Phil pointed out, in this situation you really need a fanboy to show you “all the secret five fingered key commands, hidden settings and special software that makes working with a Mac tolerable”

Your chief weapons are fear and surprise … and the “command” key (this is the key with the Apple logo either side of the space bar).

These three shortcuts work in pretty much all applications:
  • Command-Q = Quit the current application
  • Command-W = Close the current window
  • Command-` = Toggle between windows within the current application
    You’ll find the “`” key next to the “1” key in the top-left of the keyboard
This last one is especially useful if you use for your email.
Some others that are specific to mail:
  • Command-N = Create a new message
  • Command-Shift-N = Get new mail
  • Command-Shift-D = Send current message
  • Command-Option-F = Search (very handy – see below)

Here are a couple of other keyboard shortcuts that I’ve stumbled upon since then, which (as far as I can tell) are not widely known. The first two apply to text fields within all Cocoa applications:

  1. Escape or Shift-F5 to display an auto-complete spell checker (from Dave5).
  2. Option-F8 to insert a stylised bullet point – discovered completely by accident (try holding down option and typing random characters, you’ll be amazed what you can find)
  3. In Excel: Command-T to toggle a cell reference to be permanent – e.g. C8 to $C$8 – this one dove me crazy for quite a while!
  4. In Firefox: Command-L to jump to the URL and Command-K to jump to the search box – for some reason the search shortcut doesn’t seem to work in Safari?

I’m sure there must be heaps more that I haven’t found yet.

What secret keyboard shortcuts do you use all the time?

Feel free to share your discoveries in the comments below.


One of the things that continues to surprise me about OSX is the number of quality third-party apps that are available. These are usually pretty cheap, and generally really well built.

Typically they just do one simple job, but do it well.

Here is a quick list from my applications folder, roughly in order of usage:

  • Yojimbo – Simple note keeping app.
  • Things – Simple to-do list app.
  • Quicksilver – Hard to explain in one short sentence, but I’m much slower without it.
  • RescueTime – Data entry-less time monitoring.
  • TextMate – Text editor which is as powerful as you want it to be.
  • 1Password – Cross-browser password manager (also syncs to iPhone).
  • VLC – Media player which can handle more-or-less any format, including streaming audio/video.
  • Pixelmator – Photoshop-lite – nice for quickly editing photos etc.
  • VMWare Fusion – Virtual Machine, run Windows and Linux apps in OSX.
  • VectorDesigner – Simple vector design file editor (great for quick mock-ups)
  • StuffIt Expander – Zip utility.
  • Switch – Audio converter.
  • Paparazzi – Web page screen-shot taker.
  • AppFresh – Scans apps and tells you when a newer version is available.
  • Transmission – BitTorrent client.
  • Handbreak – DVD utility.
  • Scribbles – Nice-n-simple drawing app for kids.

Two others from my downloads folder that I haven’t played with myself (yet), but which come recommended by others:

I have both iWork and Microsoft Office.  I find I use Excel more than Numbers, Keynote more than PowerPoint and Pages and Word hardly at all.  I used Entourage when I was working at Xero, but thankfully no longer.

I also know others who are fans of OpenOffice, which also seems to work nicely on OSX.

fluid-apps-in-dockAlso, as I’ve mentioned previously I’m a fan of using Fluid to create site-specific browser based apps.  I currently have five Fluid apps in my dock, each with a sexy icon:

Note: If you look closely you’ll see I’ve moved my dock on the left hand side of the screen.  I figure that screen are wider than they are taller, and web pages and documents run top to bottom, so there is generally more free space on the sides than at the bottom.

Finally, if you’re into Media Center type apps, then have a play with:

What applications do you use the most?

For those who have recently switched, do you find you spend more on apps now than when you were a Windows user?

Unfortunately since my switch to OSX I’ve done very little coding, but I’d also be interested to hear what tools people use and can recommend I check out.

Your suggestions for other things I should try are welcome, as always.

UPDATE 20-Feb:

Jean from SmileOnMyMac has been in touch to let me know about their Mac Switcher Bundle, which includes two of the apps I mentioned above (1Password and TextExpander) as well as another I didn’t know about previously (Witch) which looks like it solves the window/app switching problem.

She has also kindly offered a free copy of this bundle for me to give away to a lucky reader.  I thought that I’d give it to the best comment on this post.  Just add your best tip now to be in to win!

Advanced Search

I don’t bother with an elaborate directory structure.

For my emails, I just have a single local folder, called “Keep” which contains all of the messages I choose to hold on to for whatever reason.

I’ve been using more-or-less the same approach ever since I’ve been using email (and I’m not as young now as I used to be then!) so I have a lot of emails.

I rely on search to make it all work.

The search within the default Mail app which is part of OSX is pretty good (even though my email accounts these days are all Gmail of one form or another, I still prefer to use Mail as my email client – how about you?)

As mentioned above, the Command-Option-F keyboard shortcut jumps you straight into the search field.

From there I tend to use the name of the other person and a single keyword. Generally this will quickly uncover the message I’m after.

But, where a more detailed search is required there are a couple of tricks that you might find useful …

Firstly, you can narrow search results using prefixes:

  • “email:” will search for a specific email address
  • “from:” and “to:” will search for a specific sender or recipient
  • “subject:” will search for a word in the subject field only

These work in the search built into Mail and also in Spotlight.

Similarly, within Spotlight you can use “kind:” to limit the results to a specific type of file (e.g. “mail” or “word” or “pdf”).


Secondly, you can use the “Smart Mailboxes” feature in Mail to give you a more detailed advanced search.

Just create a new smart mailbox and call it “Advanced Search”. Then whenever you want to run a search with multiple criteria you can just double click on it and it will open up the standard filter options screen.


Finally, unrelated to email, but nonetheless a nifty little time saving feature built into Spotlight: type an equation as a search and the top item displayed will be the result:

All good.

What other advanced search tricks do you use?


I hope that helps?  But, what else am I forgetting?

I’m interested to hear any other suggestions that long-time OSX users might have for the newly converted!

Photo Credits: Schlock, by -nathan

Two Small Email Improvements

On the surface email seems like a mature application, without any obvious ways to make it better.

At least that’s what everybody thought until Gmail came along, with a bunch of excellent innovations: threaded conversations, automated archiving and labels rather than a folder structure, etc, etc.

So, what would you do to improve email even further?

Here are two simple ideas that would make email much better for me:

1. Hide until

This would simply allow me to “hide” a selected message until some date in the future.  Then on that date the message would re-appear in my inbox.

I try and keep my inbox empty.  In practice, that means at any given time my inbox contains a handful of messages which need a response.  It would be nicer, where I’m waiting on somebody else, or need to respond, but not straight away, to be able to get that message out of the list temporarily.

This seems like it would be pretty easy to implement.

2. Auto-scan for forgotten attachments

This would scan each message when I click “send” and if the body of the message includes the words “see attached” or something similar and there is nothing attached, it would stop and confirm that I didn’t forget to actually attach the document.

If I had a dollar for each time I had to follow-up with a “doh – actually attached this time” message …

Likewise this doesn’t seem that hard (famous last words, those!)

What do you think?

Would those be useful to you too?

Perhaps they already exist?

What other little ideas do you have for improving email and some of the other tools you use everyday?



I was in Auckland last week and spotted this ad in the business section of the Herald:


The small print at the bottom reads:

“People seem to be investing more than ever in TVs.  So it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out where to invest your advertising dollar.”

Now, I realise that I’m far from the target audience for this ad – given that I’m not the sort of person who’s likely to buy TV advertising.

But, it still made me angry.

Our big LCD TV is hooked up to a MySky box, which means most of the things we watch are available in HD.

But, not the TVNZ channels, which look like rubbish in comparison.

So, instead of expensive ads in the newspaper, I wish that TVNZ would put their energy into sorting out their petty differences with Sky and making their content available in the best possible format however people choose to access it.

Then, ironically, more people might watch their channels.

Which will make it easier for them to sell more ads.

Which will mean they don’t have to spend so much money on newspaper ads.

Everybody wins. Except the newspapers, I suppose.

Network Time Machine

If you have any important files sitting on a single hard drive somewhere, disaster (or at least disappointment) is never far away. 

If you’re an Apple user then you can use Time Machine, a simple backup tool which is included as part of your operating system, to help solve this problem.

However, there are several limitations to Time Machine which make it a bit useless – not the least that you either have to splash out on a Time Capsule or use a USB or Firewire drive which is directly connected to your computer.

To get around this restriction, here is a simple hack that let’s you backup to a network drive:

Setup Time Machine on a NAS in three easy steps

Alternatively, there is a free utility called iTimeMachine which will do the setup for you.

I use this to backup my laptop to a ReadyNAS at home, which is also where we keep all of our photos and music etc.  It would work even better in an office environment where you could backup the whole company to a single server. 

A setup like this doesn’t have to be hugely expensive.  And, anyway, the peace of mind in knowing that I can recover important files if when my hard drive craps itself is worth a lot.

If you’re one of those people who think that putting a good system in place for backing up your important data is something that you can do tomorrow, then keep your fingers crossed that the dreaded blinking question mark doesn’t appear today. :-)

PS The next step beyond this is to setup an offsite backup.  The ReadyNAS supports rsync, which should allow me to do this pretty easily.  If anybody has something like this up and running already, or would be interested in helping me with this get in touch.

Where do I find Google?

Google has published their list of the top search terms for the year:

Top 10 searches on in 2008

  1. games
  2. bebo
  3. youtube
  4. trade me
  5. lyrics
  6. google
  7. map
  8. hotmail
  9. tv
  10. weather

Half of these are site specific brand names (in bold) – meaning that rather than using Google the person doing the search could have simple added .com or to the term and entered the URL directly into their browser and found the site they were looking for directly.

(the same trick would actually also work with most of the other terms too, but it’s not so obvious that people searching for these things were after the corresponding .com)

The one that will really surprise many web developers, I suspect, is “Google” itself – the sixth most popular search this year.  

How do you explain that?  What’s the mental model those users have of the web and of search engines specifically?

Most technology people will, I suspect, find it difficult to understand the sort of person who does this sort of search, but that’s exactly what we need to do if we’re going to build products these people will like to use and will tell their friends about.

Now Hiring: Web Designer

Interested? Check out the job description.